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Thesis and HDR defenses

Thesis defenses

Considered as a real professional research experience, the doctorate is validated by the defence of a thesis. The doctoral activity consists of Research work, supervised by a thesis director, within a Research unit attached to a Doctoral School authorised by the Institution awarding the doctoral degree.

HDR defenses

The authorisation to direct research sanctions the recognition of the candidate's high scientific level, the originality of his or her approach in a scientific field, his or her ability to master a research strategy in a sufficiently broad scientific or technological field and his or her capacity to supervise young researchers.

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